An Introduction to Industrial Clusters

Today, the development of industrial clusters plays a central and prominent role in the economic and
industrial policies of many developed and developing countries. While past approaches focused more on
macroeconomics and large enterprises, the current approach emphasizes the responsibility of small and
medium-sized businesses in enhancing their competitiveness, improving network communications,
emphasizing indirect support, combining competition and collaboration to strengthen learning and
innovation, promoting collaboration between small and large units, and strengthening the collaboration
triangle of "clusters," "government," and "universities."
As the focus on problem-solving shifts from the international, national, and sectoral levels towards
regional and local levels, based on the capabilities of social systems shaped by natural processes, attention
to medium-sized, small, and micro-businesses within definable communication networks, under the
framework of cluster development, becomes of special importance.
For more than a decade, cluster-based industrial development has received attention from planners and
policymakers in industrialized and developing countries as a new strategy. International organizations
such as UNIDO have also implemented and supported numerous initiatives through the development of
industrial clusters in different countries. In recent years, the attention to small and medium-sized
industries and the development of industrial clusters within the country has also gained significance.
However, it appears that at the policy-making and implementation levels of the cluster development
model, the country still requires fundamental and foundational actions.

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